J. Cosmet. Sci., 57, 95-105 (March/April 2006)
A pilot study on efficacy treatment of acne vulgaris using a
new method: Results of a randomized double-blind trial with
CHAO-MING CHAO, WEI-YU LAI, BAI-YAO WU,
HUNG-CHIA CHANG, WEI-SHUAN HUANG, and
YU-FEI CHEN, Department Of Dermatology, Tri-Service General
Hospital, 325 Cheng-Kung Road Section 2, Taipei 114,
Taiwan, Republic of China.
Accepted for publication October 31, 2005.
For many years the positive effect of hydrocolloid dressings
on skin-related conditions attracted the attention of the medical
scientific community. The use of Acne Dressing?, a tape of hydrocolloid
dressing, for the treatment of acne has not been reported previously.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy
and beneficial effect of Acne Dressing? on the marker for sebum
output evaluations. We also determined the cosmetic outcome
of this application during the treatment of acne and whether
the material could prevent hand touching and UVB light from
reaching the skin surface. The objective of this study was to
assess improvement in acne vulgaris and tolerability during
one week of short contact treatment with Acne Dressing? compared
to skin tapes. Efficacy data specific to treatment of acne vulgaris
with Acne Dressing? (3M Health Care) from a double-blind, randomized,
skin types-controlled study is reported. A total of 20 patients
with mild-to-moderate acne vulgaris applied the skin tapes or
Acne Dressing? every two days for up to one week. Twenty patients
were enrolled in this study: ten patients received Acne Dressing?
and ten patients received skin tapes. Both groups showed decreases
from baseline to the end of treatment in the mean of the overall
severity scale (decrease of 1.37 from 1.8 to 0.43 with Acne
Dressing? and 0.28 from 1.08 to 0.8 with skin tapes). A statistically
significant greater reduction was observed over a period of
three to seven days in the overall severity of acne and inflammation
in the Acne Dressing group compared with the mono-therapy (skin
tapes) group. Similarly, Acne Dressing? resulted in a significantly
greater improvement in the redness, oiliness, dark pigmentation,
and sebum casual level at days 3, 5, and 7. The ratio of transmission
of UVB light with Acne Dressing? was 7.4%, and 38% with skin
tapes, which shows less UVB light reaching the skin surface
with the Acne Dressing?. No significant adverse events were
identified in either group. The pilot study shows the benefit
of treatment with Acne Dressing? in improving mild-tomoderate
inflammatory acne vulgaris. A future study will investigate
a large set of patients in longer followup periods.
J. Cosmet. Sci., 57, 107-125 (March/April 2006)
Availability and chemical composition of traditional eye cosmetics
("kohls") used in the United Arab Emirates of Dubai, Sharjah,
Ajman, Umm Al-Quwain, Ras Al-Khaimah, and Fujairah
ANDREW D. HARDY, Centre for Medical History, School of Humanities
and Social Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4RJ, Devon,
UK; RICHARD I. WALTON and KATHRYN A. MYERS, Department of Chemistry,
School of Biosciences, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QD,
Devon, UK; and RAGINI VAISHNAV, College of Medicine, Sultan
Qaboos University, Box 35, Al-Khod 123, Sultanate of Oman.
Accepted for publication December 16, 2005.
This study was undertaken in order to determine the availability
and chemical composition of potentially lead-toxic traditional
eye cosmetics ("kohls") in six of the seven emirates of the
United Arab Emirates (UAE). Thus of especial interest was the
percentage of the purchased samples that contained the toxic
element lead. A total of 53 observably different kohl samples
were found to be available overall in the six emirates: Dubai,
Sharjah, Ajman, Umm Al-Quwain, Ras Al-Khaimah, and Fujairah.
It was found that 19 of these samples had been previously analyzed
by us in studies covering Oman, Abu Dhabi (city), and Egypt
(Cairo). The techniques of X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and
scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to analyze the
remaining 34 samples. Overall, for the 53 kohl samples, it was
found that 20 (38%) contained a lead compound (galena, PbS)
as the main component. The other main components were found
to be one of the following: amorphous carbon, calcite/aragonite
(CaCO3), goethite (FeO(OH)), hematite (Fe2O3), sassolite (H3BO3),
talc (Mg3Si4O10(OH)2), or zincite (ZnO).
J. Cosmet. Sci., 57, 127-137 (March/April 2006)
Analysis of consumer cosmetic products for phthalate esters
JEAN C. HUBINGER and DONALD C. HAVERY, U.S. Food and Drug Administration,
5100 Paint Branch Parkway, College Park, MD 20740.
Accepted for publication November 17, 2005.
A rapid and sensitive reverse-phase HPLC method with UV detection
was developed for the quantitation of dimethyl phthalate (DMP),
diethyl phthalate (DEP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), dibutyl
phthalate (DBP), and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in cosmetic
preparations. Average recoveries of the phthalate esters were
better than 90%. In a survey of 48 consumer cosmetic products,
including hair care products, deodorants, lotions and creams,
nail products, fragrances, and body washes, most products were
found to contain at least one phthalate ester. DEP was detected
most frequently at concentrations up to 38,663 ppm. DBP was
found in fewer products, but at levels up to 59,815 ppm. Based
on the available exposure and toxicity data, the FDA has concluded
that there is insufficient data to conclude that a human health
hazard exists from exposure to phthalate esters from cosmetic
J. Cosmet. Sci., 57, 153-169 (March/April 2006)
Principles of emulsion stabilization with special reference
to polymeric surfactants
THARWAT TADROS, 89 Nash Grove Lane, Workingham, Berkshire RG40 4HE, U.K.
Accepted for publication November 17, 2005.
This overview summarizes the basic principles of emulsion stabilization
with particular reference to polymeric surfactants. The main
breakdown processes in emulsions are briefly described. A section
is devoted to the structure of polymeric surfactants and their
conformation at the interface. Particular attention is given
to two polymeric surfactants that are suitable for oil-in-water
(O/W) and water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions. For O/W emulsions, a
hydrophobically modified inulin (HMI), obtained by grafting
several alkyl groups on the backbone of the inulin (polyfructose)
chain, is the most suitable. For W/O emulsions, an A-B-A block
copolymer of polydroxystearic acid (PHS), the A chains, and
polyethylene oxide (PEO), the B chain, is the most suitable.
The conformation of both polymeric surfactants at the O/W and
W/O interfaces is described. A section is devoted to the interaction
between emulsion droplets containing adsorbed polymer surfactant
molecules. This interaction is referred to as steric stabilization,
and it is a combination of two main effects, namely, unfavorable
mixing of the A chains, referred to as the mixing interaction,
Gmix, and loss of configurational entropy on significant overlap
of the stabilizing chains, referred to as elastic interaction,
Gel. The criteria for effective steric stabilization are summarized.
O/W emulsions based on HMI are described, and their stability
in water and in aqueous electrolyte solutions is investigated
using optical microscopy. Very stable emulsions can be produced
both at room temperature and at 50°C. The reason for this high
stability is described in terms of the multipoint anchoring
of the polymeric surfactant (by several alkyl groups), the strong
hydration of the inulin (polyfructose) chains, and the high
concentration of inulin in the adsorbed layer. W/O emulsions
using PHS-PEO-PHS block copolymer can be prepared at a high
volume fraction of water, ?, and these emulsions remain fluid
up to high ? values (>0.6). These emulsions also remain stable
for several months at room temperature and at 50°C.
J. Cosmet. Sci., 57, 139-151 (March/April 2006)
Study of the interaction between hair protein and organic acid
that improves hair-set durability by near-infrared spectroscopy
TAKASHI ITOU, MASAYOSHI NOJIRI, YOSHIKAZU OOTSUKA, and KOICHI
NAKAMURA, Kao Corporation, Hair Care Research Laboratories,
1-3, Bunka 2-chome, Sumida-ku, Tokyo 131-8501 (T.I., M.N., K.N.),
and Kao Corporation, Analytical Research Center, 1334 Minato,
Wakayama City, Wakayama 640-8580. (Y.O.), Japan.
Accepted for publication October 31, 2005.
In this study, hydrogen bonds around hair proteins were analyzed
by near-infrared spectroscopy to reveal the mechanism of improving
hair-set durability by treatment with a specific organic acid.
The improvement of set durability was confirmed by measurement
on single hair fibers, suggesting that improvement is not because
of the surface adhesion increase but because of the internal
changes in the hair. Through analysis by two-dimensional near-infrared
correlation spectroscopy, it was found that a combination band
of stretching NH and amide II is deconvoluted into three bands
interacting with different hydrogen bonds. From the assignment
of the three bands, the behavior of the organic acid in the
hair was clarified as follows: it adsorbs at the site where
water originally binds, even in extremely dry conditions, prevents
water penetration, and makes strong and stable hydrogen bonds
with hair proteins. The formation of such strong and stable
hydrogen bonds suppresses the exchange of hydrogen bonds that
is the cause of the breakage of set durability.
J. Cosmet. Sci., 57, 171-173
Abstracts International Journal of Cosmetic Science
Vol. 28, No. 1, 2006*
J. Cosmet. Sci., 57, 174-176
Abstracts IFSCC Magazine
Vol. 9, No. 1, 2006*
J. Cosmet. Sci., 57, 177-204
Papers Presented at the 2005 Annual Scientific Meeting and Technology
December 8-9, 2005 New York Hilton New York, NY