J. Cosmet. Sci., 56, 283–295 (September/October 2005)
Investigation of penetration abilities of various
oils into human hair fibers
K. KEIS, D. PERSAUD, Y. K. KAMATH, and A. S. RELE, TRI Princeton,
Princeton, NJ 08542 (K.K., D.P., Y.K.K.), and Marico Industries
Ltd., Andheri, Mumbai 400 058, India (A.S.R.).
Accepted for publication June 8, 2005.
In this work we have explored capillary adhesion between hair
fibers treated with different types of oils. With coconut, olive,
and sunflower oils the capillary adhesion was found to decrease
with time, but not with mineral oil. Application of heat reduced
the capillary adhesion further for coconut and sunflower oils.
Again, this was not observed with mineral oil. Based on an earlier
study, where coconut oil was found to penetrate hair while mineral
oil was unable to do so, it was hypothesized that the reduction
in capillary adhesion resulted from the penetration of oil into
the fiber, leaving a thinner oil film on the surface. Such a
reduction in capillary adhesion can be explained by changes
in Laplace pressure and in the areas of liquid bridges formed
between the fibers. The thinning of oil films on the surface
of hair has been confirmed independently by goniophotometric
measurements on single hair fibers treated with coconut, sunflower,
and mineral oils. Thick films of oil (thicker than ~0.5 µm)
are known to mask the scale structure. As the oil is absorbed
into the hair, the film thins with time and application of heat,
and the scale structure reappears. This change can be conveniently
determined by measuring the scale angle, using the well established
goniophotometric protocol. The agreement between the two methods
supports the concept that the reduction in capillary adhesion
between hair fibers is most likely due to thinning of oil films
by absorption of oil into the hair.
J. Cosmet. Sci., 56, 297–309 (September/October 2005)
A novel method for visualizing hair lipids at
the cell membrane complex: Argon sputter etching/scanning electron
YOSHINORI MASUKAWA, HIROMI SHIMOGAKI,
KENJI MANAGO, and GENJI IMOKAWA, Tochigi
Research Laboratories, Kao Corporation, 2606 Akabane, Ichikai-machi,
Haga, Tochigi, 321-3497 (Y.M., H.S., G.I.), and Wakayama Research
Laboratories, Kao Corporation, 1334 Minato, Wakayama, Wakayama,
640-8580 (K.M.), Japan.
Accepted for publication May 11, 2005. Based on a presentation
at the 13th International Hair-Science Symposium, Potsdam, Germany,
September 10–12, 2003
Hair lipids localized at the cell membrane complex (CMC) play
a part in chemical diffusion, cell cohesion, and mechanical
strength. There is no method currently available to visualize
hair lipids at the CMC. We found that scanning electron microscopy
(SEM) of a transversely polished hair plane followed by argon
sputter etching (ASE) provides a specific characteristic image
consisting of circular patterns (CP) and stitch patterns (SP)
at the cortex. Both the CP and the SP are formed as convex structures
and are associated with melanin granules and the CMC, respectively.
While the convex formation of the CP is not affected by any
treatments tested, that of the SP disappeared following treatment
of hair fibers with organic solvents and reappeared following
incubation of the solvent-treated hair fibers with melting lipids,
which suggests that the hair lipids are responsible for the
convex SP. Other treatments, such as chemical fixation, thin
sectioning, and pre-/post-incubation of the hair plane, reduce
or abolish the convex formation of the SP. These findings suggest
that the following pathway leads to the convex formation of
SP during ASE: (a) joule heat is generated on the surface by
violent collisions of argon ions, (b) melting CMC lipids ooze
out from the inside to the surface, and (c) CMC lipids that
have oozed out are chemically changed, leading to the final
convex formation of the SP. With ASE-SEM, visualization of hair
lipids as convex structures of SP should enable us to characterize
the fine structure and localization of hair lipids and to clarify
the roles and functions of the CMC of human hair.
J. Cosmet. Sci., 56, 311–321 (September/October 2005)
Effect of systemic hormonal cyclicity on skin
NEELAM MUIZZUDDIN, KENNETH D. MARENUS, STEVEN F. SCHNITTGER,
MICHAEL SULLIVAN, and DANIEL H. MAES, Estee Lauder Companies,
125 Pinelawn Road, Melville, NY 11747.
Accepted for publication May 26, 2005.
Fluctuations in estrogen and progesterone during the menstrual
cycle can cause changes in body systems other than the reproductive
system. We conducted several studies to determine a possible
correlation between phases of the menstrual cycle and specific
skin properties. Healthy Caucasian women (ages 21–48),
who had a typical 26–29 day menstrual cycle, participated
in the studies. Measurements of skin barrier strength, dryness,
response to lactic acid stinging, skin surface lipids, and microflora
were obtained every week for two to three months. Ultraviolet
B susceptibility in terms of minimal erythemal dose was also
studied. The skin barrier was the weakest between days 22 and
26 of the cycle. Elevated neuronal response (lactic acid sting)
was not observed to vary much with the cycle. Skin was driest
between day 1 and day 6, while skin surface lipid secretion
appeared to be highest on days 16–20 of the hormonal cycle.
The highest microbial count was around days 16–22, and
there was a high UV-B susceptibility between days 20 and 28
of the menstrual cycle.
J. Cosmet. Sci., 56, 323–330 (September/October 2005)
Penetration of cationic conditioning compounds
fibers: A TOF-SIMS approach
S. B. RUETSCH and Y. K. KAMATH, TRI/Princeton, Princeton, NJ
Accepted for publication June 8, 2005.
Cationic conditioning compounds protect against hair damage
caused by cosmetic chemical treatments and grooming practices.
They also enhance the retention of moisture. However, the question
as to whether they do this superficially by residing on the
hair surface or by penetrating into the fiber remains unanswered.
In this work, an attempt has been made to show the penetration
of a low-molecular-weight cationic conditioning compound into
the hair cortex using the time-of-flight secondary ion mass
spectrometry (TOF SIMS) method, applied in earlier research
to show the penetration of oils into hair. An example of the
practical benefit of such penetration into the cortex in greatly
improving the fatigue resistance of hair has been discussed.
J. Cosmet. Sci., 56, 331–332 (September/October 2005)
Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Chemists Japan
Vol. 39, No. 2, 2005*
J. Cosmet. Sci., 56, 333–335 (September/October 2005)
International Journal of Cosmetic Science
Vol. 27, No. 4, 2005*
J. Cosmet. Sci., 56, 337–377 (September/October 2005)
Papers Presented at the Annual Scientific
Seminar of the Society of Cosmetic Chemists