J. Cosmet. Sci., 55, 423-436 (September/October 2004)
Effect of hair color on luster K. KEIS, K. R.
RAMAPRASAD, and Y. K. KAMATH, TRI/Princeton, P.O. Box 625, Princeton,
Accepted for publication July 7, 2004. Presented at the
Annual Scientific Meeting and Technology Showcase of the Society
of Cosmetic Chemists, New York, December 4-5, 2003.
The effect of color on instrumentally evaluated luster of
hair dyed to different colors and depths of shades is studied.
For natural hair colors, such as blond, brown, and black, the
increase in luster with increasing color is associated with
a decrease in diffusely scattered light as a result of light
absorption by melanin granules. On dyed hair the interpretation
of data from a goniophotometer (GP) is more complicated. Using
the colors covering the extremes and middle of the visible spectrum,
our results demonstrate how dye composition (single or multicomponent),
concentration, and penetration depth into the fiber affect the
absorptive and scattering processes within the hair fiber to
impact luster. Finally, we make an attempt to study the effect
of hair color on subjective evaluation of luster. An equation
for perceived luster, taking into account the spectral sensitivity
of the human eye is derived. Theoretical considerations show
that the luster of hair of different colors is perceived differently
by the human eye.
J. Cosmet. Sci., 55, 437-447 (September/October 2004)
Hair color changes caused by dyeing and thermal
treatments ANA CAROLINA SANTOS NOGUEIRA, CARLA SCANAVEZ, CRISTIANE
CARNELOS, ALEXANDRE GASPARI, and INEŽ S JOEKES, Instituto de
QuęŽmica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Caixa
Postal 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, SP, Brazil.
Accepted for publication August 26, 2004. Presented at the
22nd IFSCC Congress, Edinburgh, Scotland, September 2002.
The aim of this study was to show the effect of heat exposure,
dyeing, and shampooing on hair color as measured by diffuse
reflectance spectrophotometry. Successive dyeing of virgin hair
with six permanent commercial formulations showed that color
saturation was obtained after the first dyeing cycle. An unexpectedly
high difference in hair color saturation, measured as DE* values,
was obtained for virgin hair samples that differed only in cleansing
history. After six sequential washings of the dyed hair samples,
no difference was observed in color durability, indicating that
the adhesion strength is similar to long-lasting and tone-up
dyeing formulations. Exposure to a hot plate at 172°C showed
a significant darkening of the virgin hair samples after 2 min.
On the other hand, virgin hair samples exposed to the gentler
heat of a hand dryer ( 60°C) showed partial disappearance of
the hair medulla after 60 min. However, values of total color
difference were near the error limit.
J. Cosmet. Sci., 55, 449-461 (September/October 2004)
Stability study of lipoic acid in the presence
of vitamins A and E in o/w emulsions for cosmetic application
A. SEGALL, M. SOSA, A. ALAMI, C. ENERO, F. HORMAECHEA, M.
T. PIZZORNO, C. BREGNI, and R. SERRAO, Department of Pharmaceutical
Technology, School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University
of Buenos Aires. JunęŽn 956, 1113 Buenos Aires (A.S., M.S.,
F.H., M.T.P., C.B., R.S.), and Laboratorios Codac S. R.L., GeŽnova
4045, 1702 Ciudadela (A.A., C.E.), Argentina.
Accepted for publication July 7, 2004.
The effectiveness of any cosmetic product containing a functional
ingredient is determined by the skin delivery of the active
molecule, which is influenced by the type of carrier and the
molecule itself. Furthermore, the functional ingredient should
be stable in the formulation. The purpose of this paper is to
study the stability of lipoic acid in the presence of vitamins
A (as palmitate) and E (as acetate) in semisolids for cosmetic
use. The systems formulated were studied in regard to their
aspect, pH, stability under centrifugation, and rheological
behavior. The chemical analyses of lipoic acid and vitamins
A and E were carried out by HPLC after studying the specificity
of the method employed in each case. The quantitation of the
active principles was performed by HPLC with C18 (5 ”m) columns.
The mobile phase was methanol for the vitamins, with spectrophotometric
detection at 325 nm for vitamin A and 230 nm for vitamin E.
The mobile phase for lipoic acid was methanol:water (80:20)
and phosphoric acid at pH 3.0, with spectrophotometric detection
at 332 nm. All systems were stable to centrifugation, and no
significant modification of rheological behavior was observed
in relation to the base emulsion used as control. The chemical
studies performed indicated that although lipoic acid is not
very stable in these formulations, the presence of vitamin A
favors its chemical stability.
J. Cosmet. Sci., 55, 463-471 (September/October 2004)
Comparative study between the viscoelastic behaviors
of different lipid nanoparticle formulations E. B. SOUTO, S.
A. WISSING, C. M. BARBOSA, and R. H. MUš LLER, Department of
Pharmaceutics, Biopharmaceutics and Biotechnology, Free University
of Berlin, Kelchstrasse 31, D-12169 Berlin, Germany (E.B.S.,
S.A.W., R.H.M.), and Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical
Technology, Oporto University, Rua AnęŽbal Cunha 164, P-4050-047
Porto, Portugal (E.B.S., C.M.B.).
Accepted for publication July 7, 2004.
Application of drug substances to the skin for systemic
absorption or action in a particular layer of the skin is a
rather old approach. However, over the last years it has received
much more attention, as a consequence of the development of
new membrane-moderated and matrix reservoir devices. As new
reservoir systems, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and nanostructured
lipid carriers (NLC) have been successfully tested for dermal
application of different physicochemical substances. The knowledge
obtained from rheological investigations of these systems may
be highly useful for the characterization of the newly developed
topical formulation. In the present study, an oscillation frequency
sweep test was used for the evaluation of storage modulus (G_),
loss modulus (G_), and complex viscosity (_*) of twelve different
SLN and NLC formulations, over a frequency range from 0 to 10
Hz. The lipidic aqueous dispersions were prepared using three
different solid lipids (Softisan_138, Compritol_888, and stearyl
alcohol) as matrix material. Miglyol_812, tocopherol, sunflower
oil, and long-chain triacylglycerols were the chosen liquid
lipids for NLC preparation. The objective of the present work
was to investigate the effect of these different liquid lipids
on the rheological properties of aqueous dispersions of NLC
as model systems. It was found that the liquid oil component
of the formulation has a strong influence on the viscoelastic
parameters, which are dependent on the particle size, zeta potential,
and crystallinity of the lipid particles, as well as on the
solid lipid used.
J. Cosmet. Sci., 55, 473-479 (September/October 2004)
Topical application of Bifidobacterium-fermented
soy milk extract containing genistein and daidzein improves
rheological and physiological properties of skin KOUJI MIYAZAKI,
TOMOKO HANAMIZU, TOSHIRO SONE, KATSUYOSHI CHIBA, TAKASHI KINOSHITA,
and SATOSHI YOSHIKAWA, Yakult Central Institute for Microbiological
Research, Kunitachi, Tokyo (K.M., T.H., T.S., K.C.), and Yakult
Fujisawa Cosmetics Plant, Fujisawa, Kanagawa (T.K., S.Y.), Japan.
Accepted for publication August 26, 2004. Presented in part
at the 47th Annual Meeting of the Society of Cosmetic Chemists
of Japan, Tokyo, September 21, 2000.
The authors examined the effects of Bifidobacterium-fermented
soy milk extract (BE) containing genistein and daidzein on the
hyaluronic acid (HA) content and rheological and physiological
properties of hairless mouse and/or human skin. Topical application
of BE for six weeks significantly restored changes in the elasticity
and viscoelasticity of mouse skin, increased the HA content,
and hydrated and thickened mouse skin. Also, topical application
of a gel formula containing 10% BE to the human forearm for
three months significantly lessened the decrease in skin elasticity.
Therefore, BE is expected to become a new cosmetic ingredient
to prevent the loss of skin elasticity through enhancement of
J. Cosmet. Sci., 55, 481-483 (September/October) 2004
Abstracts International Journal of Cosmetic
Science Vol. 26, No. 3, 2004* *
These abstracts appear as they were originally published.
They have not been edited by the Journal of Cosmetic Science.
J. Cosmet. Sci., 55, 485-507 (September/October 2004)
Papers Presented at the Annual Scientific Seminar
of the Society of Cosmetic Chemists (Saturday's Program) May
7-8, 2004 Mohegan Sun Uncasville, Connecticut