J. Cosmet. Sci., 55, 317-325 (July/August 2004)
Categorical evaluation of the ocular irritancy
of cosmetic and consumer products by human ocular instillation
YANG GAO and BRUCE E. KANENGISER, Department of Ophthalmology,
Clinical Research Laboratories, Inc., 371 Hoes Lane, Piscataway,
Accepted for publication March 19, 2004. Presented at the
Annual Scientific Meeting of the Society of Cosmetic Chemists,
December 4-5, 2003.
The assessment of ocular irritation potential is an important
part of safety testing for cosmetic and consumer products. The
purpose of this investigation was to examine ocular irritancy
levels elicited in humans by various categories of a specific
class of cosmetic and consumer products that have a potential
to enter the eye inadvertently during use. Test materials assessed
belonged to one of seven categories, which included liquid makeup,
shampoo, baby wash, mascara, eye makeup remover, powder eye
shadow, and facial cleanser. These test materials were evaluated
by human ocular instillation, followed by examinations, for
which subjective perceptions of irritation were recorded, and
component areas of ocular tissues were individually examined
for inflammation and for the area and density of fluorescein
staining patterns at 30 seconds and at 5, 15, 60, and 120 minutes
post-instillation. Subjective and objective ocular irritation
scores of 410 eyes were analyzed by product classification.
Average score levels were determined for subjective responses,
inflammation, and fluorescein staining patterns. This investigation
determined that irritation levels of the evaluated test materials
varied markedly with respect to product category, type of ocular
irritation, and ocular tissue, demonstrating that these factors
are important considerations for the prediction of the ocular
irritancy of a test material.
J. Cosmet. Sci., 55, 327-341 (July/August 2004)
Evaluation for collagen products for cosmetic
YONG PENG, VERONICA GLATTAUER, JEROME A. WERKMEISTER, and JOHN
A. M. RAMSHAW CSIRO Molecular Science, 343 Royal Parade, Parkville,
Victoria 3052, Australia.
Accepted for publication January 15, 2004.
Collagen is an important component for cosmetic formulation,
where it is an effective natural humectant with high substantivity.
Commercial collagen preparations have a wide range of properties.
In the present study, various techniques have been used to examine
three distinct commercial collagens that illustrate the range
of properties that are available. The usefulness of the various
techniques for assessing collagen quality and batch-to-batch
variation is discussed. The results indicate that there are
several simple, cheap, and effective methods, such as gel electrophoresis,
that provide excellent information on collagen quality. The
appropriate selection of tests allows informed decisions on
the choice of which collagen preparation to use to provide the
desired functionality and shelf life of a formulation.
Cosmet. Sci., 55, 343-350 (July/August 2004)
Quantitative determination of formaldehyde in
cosmetics using combined headspace-solid-phase microextraction-
THOMAS RIVERO and VINOD TOPIWALA, Coty and Development Center,
410 American Road, Morris Plains, 07950-2451.
Accepted for publication May 21, 2004.
Objective of this research was the application of headspace
(HS)-solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for quantitation of
formaldehyde present in raw materials and cosmetic formulations.
The formaldehyde was derivatized in situ first with pentafluorophenylhydrazine
(PFPH), to form a derivative hydrazone. The hydrozone was adsorbed
on a SPME fiber during headspace extraction under controlled
conditions temperature, volume, etc.). After the adsorption
step, the SPME fiber was directly transferred into the chromatography
(GC) injection port in which the analytes were thermally desorbed.
Deuterated acetone as an internal standard (IS) in order to
quantitate the formaldehyde content. For the experiment, chromatograph
equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC/FID) was employed.
A gas chromatograph/ mass spectrometer (GC/MS) was used for
the qualitative confirmation of results in this work.
Cosmet. Sci., 55, 351-371 (July/August 2004)
Failure of intercellular adhesion in hair fibers
with regard hair condition and strain conditions
CLARENCE ROBBINS, HANS-DIETRICH WEIGMANN, SIGRID RUETSCH, and
YASH KAMATH, 12425 Lake Ridge Clermont, FL 34711 (C. R.), and
Textile Research Institute, 625, Princeton, NJ 08540 (H.-D.
W., S. R., Y. K.).
Accepted for publication March 31, 2004.
Although adhesion failure in hair fibers can occur inside
cells, it occurs more frequently in the cell membrane complex
(CMC), often involving the rupture of interlayer bonds. Therefore,
a model of the CMC presented, based on prior research in which
we propose interconnecting bonds between the layers to assist
interpretation of hair-fracturing mechanisms for cuticle chipping,
deep transverse cuticle cracks, during heat drying, scale lifting
by surfactants, and catastrophic failure. Failure in the wet
state involves hydrophilic layers, e.g., the contact zone of
the CMC or the endocuticle or bonding to hydrophilic layers,
whereas failure in the dry state generally involves bonding
between hydrophobic g., beta-delta failure. Chemical damage
by perms, bleaches, and sunlight, by breaking specific bonds,
influences the sites of initial failure and increases the number
of routes for crack propagation, leading to more complex fracture
J. Cosmet. Sci., 55, 373-385 (July/August 2004)
Comparison of age-related changes in wrinkling
and sagging of the skin in Caucasian females and in Japanese
KAZUE TSUKAHARA, TSUTOMU FUJIMURA, YASUKO YOSHIDA, TAKASHI
KITAHARA, MITSUYUKI HOTTA, SHIGERU MORIWAKI, PAMELA S. WITT,
F. ANTHONY SIMION, and YOSHINORI TAKEMA, Biological Science
Laboratories, Kao Corporation, Tochigi, Japan (K.T., T.F., Y.Y.,
T.K., M.H., S.M., Y.T.), and The Andrew Jergens Company, Cincinnati,
Ohio (P.S.W., F.A.S.).
Accepted for publication May 21, 2004.
We compared age-related changes in wrinkles in eight areas
of facial skin (forehead, glabella, upper eyelid, corner of
the eye, lower eyelid, nasolabial groove, cheek, and corner
of the mouth) and sagging in the subzygomatic area of Caucasian
females and of Japanese females. The subjects studied included
85 healthy Caucasian females (ages 20-69 years) living in Cincinnati
in the U.S. and 70 Japanese females (ages 20-69 years) living
in Tokyo. Photos of the face in frontal and in oblique 45° views
were analyzed. Wrinkles in the face and sagging in the subzygomatic
area were graded on Japanese photoscales, respectively, by the
same experienced observer. The wrinkle score increased with
age in all eight areas of the face examined in Caucasian females
as well as in Japanese females. In the group aged 20-29 years,
the wrinkle score in each area was significantly higher in Caucasian
females than in Japanese females. The wrinkle scores in the
forehead, glabella, upper eyelid, and corner of the eye were
similar at advanced ages between the two groups, while the wrinkle
scores in lower areas of the face (lower eyelid, nasolabial
groove, cheek, and corner of the mouth) were markedly higher
in Caucasian females than in Japanese females in each age group,
and reached an upper limit at advanced ages in Caucasian females.
The sagging score also increased with age in Caucasian females
as well as in Japanese females. The sagging score was significantly
higher in Caucasian females than in Japanese females in the
groups aged 40 years or more. These results suggest more marked
wrinkle formation in all areas of the face in younger age groups
of Caucasian females living in North America than in Japanese
females living in Tokyo. In particular, Caucasian females showed
marked age-related wrinkle formation in the lower areas of the
face, probably due to sagging in the subzygomatic area, which
suggests a higher susceptibility to sagging in the subzygomatic
area of Caucasian females. Address all correspondence to Kazue
J. Cosmet. Sci., 55, 387-391 (July/August 2004)
Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Chemists
Japan Vol. 37, No. 3, 2003*
388 JOURNAL OF COSMETIC SCIENCE ABSTRACTS 389
390 JOURNAL OF COSMETIC SCIENCE ABSTRACTS 391
J. Cosmet. Sci., 55, 392-394 (July/August 2004)
International Journal of Cosmetic Science Vol.
26, No. 2, 2004*
392 ABSTRACTS 393
394 JOURNAL OF COSMETIC SCIENCE
J. Cosmet. Sci., 55, 395-397 (July/August 2004)
IFSCC Magazine Vol. 7, No. 2, 2004*
* These abstracts appear as they were originally published.
They have not been edited by the Journal of Cosmetic Science.
396 JOURNAL OF COSMETIC SCIENCE ABSTRACTS 397
Cosmet. Sci., 55, 399-422 (July/August 2004)
Papers Presented at the Annual Scientific Seminar
of the Society of Cosmetic Chemists (Friday's Program) May 7-8,
2004 Mohegan Sun Uncasville, Connecticut
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