J. Cosmet. Sci., 54, 429-441 (September/October 2003)
Investigation of the phase behavior and an evaporation
study of systems of lavender oil, water, Laureth 4, and Tween
ABEER Al-BAWAB, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, University
of Jordan, Amman 11942, Jordan.
Accepted for publication June 16, 2003.
Natural essential lavender oil was obtained by steam distillation
from the flowering plants. The phase behavior of a system of
natural lavender oil, distilled water, and two stabilizers was
investigated. The stabilizers that were used were tetraethyleneglycol
lauryl ether (Laureth 4) and polyoxyethylen (20) sorbitan mono-oleate
(Tween 80). For the first system (water, lavender oil, Laureth
4), the phase diagram shows an area of lamellar liquid crystal
formed along the water-Laureth 4 axis. It solubilized up to
12% per weight of the lavender oil. The system formed one isotropic
solution. The phase diagram for the second system (water, lavender
oil, Tween 80) shows a small area of hexagonal liquid crystal
that solubilized a maximum of only 3% of the lavender oil. The
system shows two isotropic phases. Evaporation studies were
done for the isotropic solutions in both systems. The results
provided essential information about the behavior of lavender
oil during evaporation.
J. Cosmet. Sci., 54, 451-462 (September/October 2003)
O/W microemulsion as a vehicle for sunscreens
M. EUGENIA CARLOTTI, MARINA GALLARATE, and VALERIA ROSSATTO,
Dipartimento di Scienza e Tecnologia del Farmaco, Universita`
degli Studi di Torino, via Giuria 9 (M.E.C., M.G.), and Dipartimento
di Chimica Analitica, Universita` degli Studi di Torino, via
Giuria 5 (V.R.), 10125 Turin, Italy.
Accepted for publication June 16, 2003.
In recent years, transparent dispersions or diluted milks have
been used as sunscreens. These products contain water-soluble
sunscreen agents, and quite frequently are washed away from
the skin. However, O/W microemulsions are now being prepared
as transparent vehicles for sunscreens. They are waterproof,
nonsticky, and easily spreadable. The microemulsions are prepared
by using pseudoternary diagrams, by combining lipids with surfactant
blends and a polar phase. Soya lecithin and decylpolyglucose
produce transparent systems with the lowest percentage of surfactants.
These microemulsions contain 4-methylbenzilidene camphor or
octylmethoxycinnamate as sunscreen agents. Cyclomethicone, menthol,
and allantoin give products a good skin feel, and stearyl methicone
gives the waterproof effect. These systems show a Newtonian
flux. Little permeation of the sunscreens' trough lipophilic
and hydrophilic membrane is evidenced.
J. Cosmet. Sci., 54, 463-481 (September/October 2003)
Efficiency of a continuous height distribution
model of sunscreen film geometry to predict a realistic sun
L. FERRERO, M. PISSAVINI, S. MARGUERIE, and L. ZASTROW, Coty
Beauty-Lancaster Group, International Research & Development
Center, Athos Palace, 2, rue de la Lujernetta, MC 98000, Monaco.
Accepted for publication June 16, 2003.
Irregularities in the geometry of sunscreen films spread on
rough areas, like skin, is often presented as being the main
cause of the degree of UV absorption achieved by the UV filters
that are inside. Until now, only the step film, a model invented
by O'Neill, was simple enough to calculate UV data close to
in vitro experimental data, after determination of a limited
number of fraction areas with their corresponding thickness.
However, such models are obviously too simple to represent a
real situation. In the present work, more complex distributions
of film thickness were calculated, with an infinite number of
individual heights. Realistic models were achieved via a probability
function. The consequences for UV absorption were deduced, and
the calculated UV data were compared to experimental in vitro
data on sunscreen products measured after being spread on a
roughened PMMA substrate. The latter substrate was previously
selected for its ability to achieve a good correlation with
in vivo SPF. An optimized version of the continuous mathematical
model was finally determined in order to achieve UV curves,
similar in shape and intensity to the experimental ones. The
latter model can be used to predict realistic SPF values.
J. Cosmet. Sci., 54, 443-449 (September/October 2003)
The 21-day human cumulative irritation test
can be reduced to 14 days without loss of sensitivity
JAMES P. BOWMAN, RICHARD S. BERGER, and OTTO H. MILLS, Hill
Top Research Inc., P.O. Box 429501, Cincinnati, OH 45242; ALBERT
M. KLIGMAN and TRACY STOUDEMAYER, S.K.I.N., Inc., 151 East Tenth
Avenue, Conshohocken, PA 19428.
Accepted for publication May 16, 2003.
The 21-day cumulative irritation test for assessing the irritancy
of topical products and chemicals is a venerable procedure that
appears to have become the gold standard for manufacturers.
Berger and Bowman in 1982 (1) showed that reducing the exposure
to 14 days was less traumatic to the volunteers, less costly,
less arduous, and did not affect reliability or the capacity
to place the test agents in the proper rank order of irritancy.
In the current study we compared (a) the 21-day cumulative irritation
test, (b) the 14-day cumulative irritation test, and (c) the
14-day test with every-other-day patching. Additionally, ten-day,
seven-day and four-day data from the 21-day test were compared.
Forty-one subjects completed this study of six test materials.
Two sets of patches were applied to each subject's lower back.
One set had 21 consecutive applications of the test articles.
The second set was applied, and removal of the test articles
occurred Monday, Wednesday, and Friday for 14 days. The 21-day
test fully differentiated the test materials from each other.
Using only the first 14 days of the 21-day test also fully differentiated
the test materials. Every-other-day patching rank ordered the
test materials the same as the everyday patching, but full differentiation
of the test materials was not obtained. We conclude that the
14-day cumulative irritancy test is as reliable and sensitive
as the 21-day test, along with the obvious advantages in time,
cost, and minimization of trauma to the test subjects.
J. Cosmet. Sci., 54, 483-491 (September/October 2003)
Penetration enhancement in mouse skin and lipolysis
in adipocytes by TAT-GKH, a new cosmetic ingredient
JUN MAN LIM, MIN YOUL CHANG, SUN GYOO PARK, NAE GYU KANG, YOUNG
SOOK SONG, YOUNG HWA LEE, YOUNG CHANG YOO, WAN GOO CHO, SOO
YOUNG CHOI, and SHE HOON KANG, Cosmetic R&D Center, LG Household
& Healthcare Research Park 84, Jang-dong, Yusong-gu, Taejon
305-343 (J.M.L., M.Y.C., S.G.P., N.G.K., Y.S.S., Y.H.L., Y.C.Y.,
W.G.C., S.E.K.), and Division of Life Sciences, Hallym University,
Chunchon 200-702 (S.Y.C.), Korea.
Accepted for publication November 15, 2002.
Since the basic domain of human immunodeficiency virus type
I (HIV-1) transactivator of transcription (TAT) protein was
reported to possess the ability to traverse biological membranes
efficiently, various therapeutic proteins have been attached
to TAT for the purpose of therapy. In this study, the tripeptide
GKH (glycine-lysine-histidine) derived from parathyroid hormone
(PTH), known as lipolytic peptide, was attached to 9-poly lysine
(TAT) to be used as a cosmetic ingredient in slimming products.
TAT-GKH at 10-5 M induced approximately 37.6% and 41.5% maximal
lipolytic effects in cultured 3T3-L1 differentiated adipocytes
and in epididymal adipocytes isolated from rats, respectively,
compared with basal lipolysis. The lipolytic effect of GKH was
not changed by TAT-GKH fusion. In cytotoxicity tests, there
was no cytotoxicity in any dose concentration of TAT-GKH. We
confirmed that TAT-GKH induced lipolytic activity by GKH without
cytotoxicity and with the possibility of its use as a safe cosmetic
ingredient. TAT-GKH elevated penetration into excised hairless
mice skin 36 times more efficiently than GKH. TAT-GKH can be
used as a cosmetic ingredient in slimming products, with both
penetration enhancement and lipolytic effect without cytotoxicity.
J. Cosmet. Sci., 54, 493-498 (September/October 2003)
Synthesis of new fragrances from 2-methylfuran.
JANUSZ NOWICKI, Institute of Heavy Organic Synthesis "Blachownia,"
Energetyków 9, 47-225 Ke˛dzierzyn-Koz´le, Poland.
Accepted for publication October 18, 2002.
The synthesis of new 2-methylfuran-based alcohols is described.
The odor and physicochemical characteristics of all new compounds
are also presented.
J. Cosmet. Sci., 54, 499-511 (September/October 2003)
Relationship between physical parameters and
blood flow in human facial skin
KAZUE TSUKAHARA, YOSHINAO NAGASHIMA, SHIGERU MORIWAKI, TSUTOMU
FUJIMURA, MICHIHIRO HATTORI, and YOSHINORI TAKEMA, Biological
Science Laboratories, Kao Corporation, Tochigi (K.T., S.M.,
T.F., Y.T.), Health Care Products Research Laboratories II,
Kao Corporation, Tokyo (Y.N.), and Skin Care Products Research
Laboratories, Kao Corporation, Tokyo (M.H.), Japan.
Accepted for publication January 6, 2003.
We evaluated the association between the cutaneous blood flow
and the three-dimensional morphology of the skin by measuring
various aspects of blood flow (resting blood flow, mean blood
flow during cooling, minimum blood flow during cooling, mean
blood flow after cooling, and maximum blood flow after cooling)
of the cheeks and foreheads of 40 healthy women (aged 60-77
years). We also analyzed the three-dimensional morphology of
the skin surface (sWa, sWp, sWt, sWq) in replicas obtained from
foreheads, cheeks, and other sites on the faces of those subjects.
In addition, we measured the skin elasticity and water content
of the stratum corneum on the cheeks of those women. No correlation
was observed between the parameters of the blood flow and the
surface morphology of the forehead. On the cheek, however, significant
negative correlations were observed between those parameters.
Among the blood flow parameters, the resting blood flow and
the mean blood flow during cooling showed particularly high
correlations. Concerning the surface morphology parameters,
high correlations were observed in parameters related to local
changes such as sWp and sWt. None of the cutaneous properties
examined (including the skin elasticity and water content of
the stratum corneum) correlated with the blood flow or the surface
morphology parameters of the cheek. Facial wrinkles are classified
into linear grooves, which develop at the corner of the eye
and on the forehead, and glyphic wrinkles, which develop as
deep grooves in areas such as the cheek. These results suggest
that a reduction in blood flow is one of the putative causes
of local irregularities observed in the cheek, that is, the
glyphic wrinkles, of elderly women.
J. Cosmet. Sci., 54, 513-524 (September/October 2003)
Photodegradation of phenol and salicylic acid
by coated rutile-based pigments: A new approach for the assessment
of sunscreen treatment efficiency
DAVIDE VIONE, TATIANA PICATONOTTO, and M. EUGENIA CARLOTTI,
Dipartimento di Chimica Analitica, Universita` degli Studi di
Torino, Via P. Giuria 5 (D.V., T.P.), and Dipartimento di Scienza
e Tecnologia del Farmaco, Universita` degli Studi di Torino,
Via P. Giuria 9 (M.E.C.), 10125 Turin, Italy.
Accepted for publication April 11, 2003.
The treatments used in many commercial sunscreen pigments (organic
additives and inorganic surface coating) to lower the pigments'
ability to degrade molecules under photocatalytic conditions
are effective in inhibiting the degradation of phenol, but much
less effective towards the degradation of salicylic acid. The
reason is in the different degradation pathways that phenol
and salicylic acid follow under photocatalytic conditions. The
treatments are thus effective in inhibiting the degradation
pathways initiated by TiIV- OHsurf (also named OHads), as in
the case of phenol, but much less effective towards electron-transfer
processes involving surface complexes, as in the case of salicylic
acid. These results indicate that the techniques currently adopted
by the cosmetic industry to develop organic additives for use
as pigment treatments are likely to be inadequate. The problem
most likely is that treatments are optimized following the inhibition
of the photocatalytic degradation of a single model molecule,
which results in blocking just one photocatalytic degradation
pathway (usually the one initiated by TiIV- OHsurf) and not
the other (electron transfer processes). The possible implications
for sunscreen pigments are briefly discussed, and a new approach
for the evaluation of the photocatalytic activity of inorganic
sunscreens is proposed.
J. Cosmet. Sci., 54, 525-526 (September/October 2003)
Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Chemists Japan Vol. 36,
No. 4, 2002* *
These abstracts appear exactly as they were originally published.
They have not been edited by the Journal of Cosmetic Science.
526 JOURNAL OF COSMETIC SCIENCE